How to Properly Steam Milk

by Anne Franklin 5 min read

How to Properly Steam Milk

Manybaristas will tell you that the first step to making a great cappuccino is to steam the milk properly. But how do you go about it?

In this guide, we’ll talk about the basics of steaming milk and how to do it properly.

What You Need To Get Started

Steaming milk calls for a few basics: an espresso machine equipped with a steam wand, a milk-frothing pitcher, preferably with a pointed spout for latte art, and a thermometer.

An espresso machine delivers pressurized steam through the wand used to heat and aerate the milk, transforming it into a golden froth. The pitcher holds the milk while the thermometer is for checking the temperature.

The Type of Milk Matters

Quality milk is essential for perfect steamed milk. Fresh, cold milk yields the best result as it froths well and imparts a sweet flavor.

Whole milk isricherand creates more voluminous froth due to its high fat content. If you're looking for a healthier option, go with skim milk, but be aware that it produces less creamy froth.

How To Steam Milk Properly

Steaming milk right entails a few steps:

  • Fill your pitcher with the desired amount of cold milk.
  • Position the tip of the steam wand just below the surface of the milk.
  • Start frothing, creating a whirlpool motion to aerate and texture the milk.
  • As the milk heats, submerge the steam wand deeper into the pitcher.
  • Aim to reach an optimal temperature of around 140-158°F (60°C to 70°C) while ensuring milk doesn't scald.
  • After steaming, tap the pitcher on the surface to remove any large bubbles.

Common Mistakes to Avoid with Milk Steaming

Here are some common mistakes you absolutely don't want to make when steaming milk.

Using Milk That's Either Too Hot or Too Cold

You've got to start off withcoldmilk, straight from the fridge, to give you enough time to froth it properly before it heats up. But you also need to make sure not to overheat it.

Scalding hot milk not only tastes a bit burnt, it also doesn't foam well. The sweet spot is somewhere between 140 and 155°F, give or take a few degrees, and that's where a good thermometer comes in handy.

Skimping on the Cleaning

We've all been there. You've just made yourself a glorious cup of coffee; the last thing you want to do is clean up.

But the milk residue can build up in the steam wand, and that can seriously mess with your next frothing session, affecting both the texture and taste of the milk.

You're going to want to purge the steam wand by turning on the steam for a few seconds to release any remaining residue. Then, use a clean, damp cloth or sponge to wipe the steam wand and remove any remaining residue.

If some milk residue has hardened onto the steam wand, you may need to soak it.

Improper Wand Placement

The placement of the steam wand in the milk pitcher affects how well it froths. If it's too high, all you'll get are large bubbles and lots of splattering. Not thevelvety-textured milk you're after.

If the wand is too deep in the milk, good luck getting any aeration, and that froth is what you should be really looking for.

So aim to keep the tip of the steam wand just below the surface of the milk at the beginning, and then dip it slightly deeper as the froth forms.

Not Giving the Milk a Good Swirl After Steaming It

If you don't give the milk a good swirl after steaming it, the milk and foam can separate, leaving you with a thick, foamy layer on top and a hot milk layer below.

This separation causes inconsistency in texture and flavor as you drink, with an initial mouthful of hot foam followed by plain steamed milk.

Therefore, once that milk is heated and frothed toyour liking, give the pitcher a good swirl to mix the milk and foam. This gives it a uniform texture, rather than having a watery layer at the bottom and all the froth sitting up top.

Trying to Steam Too Much or Too Little Milk

If you steam too little milk, the steam want won't have enough "juice" to sink into, meaning it's just skirting the surface. That means it's really hard to get the right whirlpool motion going.

Don't forget that whirlpool motion is uber important with a capital I because it helps introduce air into the milk uniformly and heats it evenly. Without enough milk, you're just skimming the top, and you'll likely be left with weakly aerated and unevenly heated milk.

On the other hand, steaming too muchmilkisn't a great move either. If you fill your pitcher too much, you don't leave much room for the milk to expand as it gets foamy. Plus, overfilling can get messy quickly as milk could spill over the sides as it froths and expands.

To avoid these issues, aim to have enough milk to hit just below where your pitcher starts to widen—usually around a third to halfway full is just right. It gives you plenty of wiggle room for the milk to foam up without making a mess, and it's deep enough for your steam wand to do its job effectively.

End Note

Steaming milk is truly an art that needs mastery. Like a virtuoso studying their instrument, take time to understand your equipment and the milk's behavior. Remember, every small detail counts: the freshness and type of milk, the correct temperature, and the cleanliness of your equipment.


Frequently Asked Questions

Can I Re-steam Milk?

Re-steaming milk that has already been frothed and warmed would impact itsflavor and texture. It's always best to steam fresh, cold milk for the best results.

How Much Milk Should I Steam at Once?

Aim to fill your pitcher to about a third to halfway full. This volume allows enough space for the milk to froth and expand without spilling over.

Can I Use Non-dairy Milk for Steaming?

Yes, you can. Plant-based kinds of milk like almond, oat, and soy milk can also be frothed. However, they may produce different textures and flavors compared to dairy milk. Oat milk often produces the best results among plant milks due to its creamy texture.


  1. Barista Institute. (n.d.). 5 Steps How to Steam the Perfect Barista Style Milk. Retrieved from
  2. ECS Coffee. (n.d.). A Beginners Guide to Steaming Milk. Retrieved from
  3. Espresso & Coffee Guide. (n.d.). Steaming and Frothing Milk. Retrieved from

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